Kwartalnik historii kultury materialnej online dating
The finds in question were excavated during the exploration of the castle complex in Tykocin, in the province of Podlasie, in the years 2001–2005. Most of them were found in the culture layers connected with the functioning of the Tykocin castle from the beginning of the 17th c. The events that took place there at that time are important in determining the provenance of the pipes.It is, however, difficult to fi nd out for how long a given artefact was used.Most were made of ferruginous clay; only two are white. 1/3 of the heads analysed were certainly made with matrices.The majority were fi red in an oxidising atmosphere; their potsherds are of various shades of beige or brick-red.
Perhaps this was the part of the pipe the was most easily damaged, and if that happened the pipe was unusable and the head was thrown away. Robinson, the author has proposed a typology of the fi nds from Tykocin.
Half of the pipes were certainly used, since their chambers are blackened and sooted.
Since the fi nds are mostly fragments, the data on the shape and size of the pipes are incomplete.
Clay heads (stummels, bowls, pipe bodies) of three-piece smoking pipes have been excavated in several dozen sites all over Poland. The largest fi nd, including ca 400 fragments, comes from Leżajsk; ca 100 were found in Zamość; fi nds of several dozen items come from the Old Town and the Royal Castle in Warsaw, the town of Przemyśl and the Dominikański Square in Wrocław (Breslau).
The newest among the finds are those from Leżajsk (the second half of the 19th c.